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بررسی جذابیت گیاهان گلدار برای حشرات شکارگر سیرفید (Dip., Syrphidae) در برخی کشت‌بوم‌های زراعی و باغی استان کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 بخش تحقیقات گیاه پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه،

2 محقق مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی کرمانشاه

3 بخش گیاه پزشکی مرکز تحقیقات کرمانشاه

4 بخش تحقیقات گیاه پزشکی مرکز تحقیقات کرمانشاه

چکیده

مگس‌های خانواده‌ی Syrphidae نقش مهمی در کنترل بیولوژیک شته‌ها دارند. مگس‌های بالغ برای تامین نیازهای حیاتی خود وابسته‌ به شهد و گرده‌ی گل‌های گیاهان میزبان هستند. این منابع در گونه‌های شکارگر Eupoedes corollae، Episyrphus balteatus، Sphaerophoria scripta و Scaeva albomaculata طی سال‌های 95-1394 در کشت‌بوم‌های گندم، کلزا، سیب و درختان میوه هسته‌دار کرمانشاه ارزیابی شد. دفعات دیدار روی گیاهان ملاقات شونده در 10 تکرار در مدت 5 دقیقه مشاهده، در هر نمونه برداری ثبت شد. آزمایشات با توجه به درصد تاج‌پوشش از اوایل بهار تا زمان خشک شدن گیاهان در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی نامتعادل انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد در گونه‌ی حشره‌ی E. corollae گونه‌های گیاهی Geranium tuberosum، Capsella bursa–pastoris، Lamium amplexicaule، Senecio vernalis و Alyssum hirsutum به‌ترتیب بیش‌ترین میزان جلب‌‌کننده‌گی را دارا بودند. در حشره‌ی E. balteatus نیز گیاهانC. bursa–pastoris ، Sinapis arvensis، Erodium cicutarium ، G. tuberosum و Descurainia sophia به‌ترتیب بالاترین ملاقات را داشتند. برای گونه‌ی سیرفید Sph. Scripta نیز گونه‌های گیاهی C. bursa–pastoris، Brassica napus، S. arvensis،Rapistrum rugosum و G. tuberosum به‌ترتیب جذاب‌تر بودند. همچنین برای مگس S. albomaculata گونه‌های Cardaria draba،Raphanus raphanistrum ،Brassica napus ، C. bursa–pastoris و G. tuberosum به‌ترتیب بیشترین گیاهان مورد بازدید بودند. به طور کلی شمعدانی وحشی، G. tuberosum و کیسه کشیش، C. bursa –pastoris برای همه گونه‌های سیرفید در کشت‌بوم‌های مورد ارزیابی جذابیت بالاتری دارا بودند.

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