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فعالیت ضد قارچی اسانس‌ گیاهان دارویی در برابر قارچ Mycogone perniciosa، عامل بیماری حباب تر و اثر آن‌ها بر قارچ دکمه‌ای

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل

2 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل

3 دانشیار، گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل

4 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل

چکیده

یکی از بیماری­های رایج قارچ دکمه­ای در ایران، بیماری حباب تر است که توسط قارچ Mycogone perniciosa ایجاد می­شود. در مطالعه حاضر، به منظور توسعه کنترل بیولوژیک و تولید محصول سالم، اثر ضدقارچی اسانس برخی گیاهان دارویی معطر به عنوان جایگزینی برای قارچ‌کش­های شیمیایی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برای این منظور، قارچ M. perniciosa از قارچ دکمه­ای سفید (Agaricus bisporus cv. Sylvan 737) مبتلا به بیماری حباب تر جداسازی شد. سپس به منظور ارزیابی امکان کنترل بیولوژیک قارچ عامل بیماری، اثر شش اسانس گیاه سیر، پونه، پونه کوهی، اسطوخودوس، آویشن کوهی و اکالیپتوس در برابر M. perniciosa و اثر آنها روی میسلیوم قارچ دکمه­ای سفید در غلظت­های 100، 500، 1000، 1500 و 2000 میکرولیتر در لیتر مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. طبق نتایج، آویشن کوهی و پونه کوهی بسیار سمی بوده و حداقل غلظت بازدارندگی (MIC) و قارچ­کشی (MFC) آنها  روی M. perniciosa به ترتیب 300 و 500 میکرولیتر بر لیتر بود. اسانس سیر، اثر قارچ­کشی خود را روی
M. perniciosa (1000 میکرولیتر بر لیتر) در غلظتی پایین­تر از قارچ دکمه­ای (1400 میکرولیتر بر لیتر) نشان داد. به­طور کلی، اسانس­های سیر و اسطوخودوس به ترتیب به ­عنوان مؤثرترین و ضعیف‌ترین اسانس‌ها‌‌ علیه M. pernociosa شناخته شدند. آنالیز GC-MS نیز نشان داد که به ترتیب Trisulfide, di-2-propenyl، Piperitenone oxide، Thymol، 1,8-Cineole، Thymol و Spathulenol اجزای اصلی شش اسانس فوق می‌باشند. با توجه به نتایج و با درنظرگرفتن ذائقه مصرف‌کنندگان به نظر می­رسد اسانس سیر می­تواند پس از تحقیقات تکمیلی به عنوان یک جایگزین مناسب ترکیبات شیمیایی برای کنترل بیماری حباب تر مد نظر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


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