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اثر قارچ‌ریشه (میکوریز) Glomus mosseae بر بوته‌میری پیتیومی خیار در شرایط تنش شوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل

2 دانشیار، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل

3 استادیار، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر(عج)، رفسنجان

چکیده

تنش شوری یکی از مهم‌ترین فاکتورهای غیرزیستی است که میزان رشد و محصول­دهی را در بسیاری از گیاهان محدود می­نماید. شوری به علت تأثیر سوء روی گیاه میزبان باعث افزایش حساسیت میزبان، وقوع و توسعه بیماری‌های گیاهی می­شود. قارچ­ ریشه­ها قادرند که تحمل شوری برخی گیاهان را افزایش دهند. در این تحقیق تأثیر بیولوژیکی قارچ Glomus mosseae در کنترل بیماری بوته­میری خیار با عامل Pythium aphanidermatum مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. همچنین تأثیر غلظت­های مختلف شوری درحضور میکوریز بر میزان رشد، تغذیه گیاه و شدت بیماری­ بوته­میری خیار ارزیابی شد. نتایج نشان داد که قارچ G. mosseae به‌طور معنی‌داری (05/0p≤)  باعث کاهش شدت بیماری­ شد. میانگین شدت بیماری توسط بیمارگر 56 درصد بود، در حالی‌که در تیمارهای آغشته به میکوریز کاهشی تا 28 درصد نشان داد. علاوه بر این فاکتورهای رشدی گیاه از جمله طول ریشه و ارتفاع ساقه در تیمار­های آغشته به میکوریز در خاک شور در مقایسه با گیاهان غیرآغشته به میکوریز بیشتر بود که منجر به رشد بهتر گیاه و جذب مواد غذایی توسط ریشه‌ها گردید. با افزایش شوری، مقدار فسفر و پتاسیم به‌صورت معنی‌داری کاهش یافت درحالی‌که مقدار سدیم افزایش یافت، اما در تمامی سطوح شوری آزمایش‌شده مقدار فسفر و پتاسیم در گیاهان آغشته به میکوریز بیشتر از گیاهان غیرمیکوریزی بود ولی مقدار سدیم کمتر بود. این نتایج نشان داد که کلنیزاسیون G. mosseae در ریشه‌های گیاهچه خیار می‌تواند از اثرات مخرب شوری و بوته‌میری پیتیومی بکاهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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