76043abf2ebed2c

تأثیر گیاه میزبان بر کشندگی قارچ Beauveria bassiana روی کنه تارتن دولکه‌ای، Tetranychus urticae و سن شکارگر Orius niger

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

2 استاد، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان

3 استاد، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی گیاه میزبان می­تواند برکشندگی عوامل کنترل میکروبی روی آفت هدف و دشمنان طبیعی آن تأثیرگذار باشد. در پژوهش حاضر، کشندگی جدایه TV از قارچ B. bassiana در غلظت 107 کنیدی در میلی­لیتر با برج پاشش علیه کنه­های ماده بالغ روی گوجه­فرنگی، خیار و توت­فرنگی هرکدام در پنج تکرار مورد بررسی قرارگرفت. شاهد نیز با همان شرایط بدون پاشش قارچ در نظر گرفته شد. در مرحله بعدی، حساسیت سن شکارگر O. niger به قارچ بیمارگر با غلظت 107 کنیدی در میلی­لیتر با پاشش روی ماده‌های بالغ و پوره‌های سن پنجم هر کدام در پنج تکرار روی این سه گیاه تعیین شد. اجرای هر دو گروه از آزمون­ها برمبنای طرح کاملاً تصادفی بود. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که کاربرد قارچ روی کنه T. urticae تحت تأثیر سه گیاه دارای اختلاف معنی‌دار است. به طوری که بیمارگری قارچ روی گیاه خیار با میانگین 63 درصد برای کنه­ها بیش‌تر از تلفات ایجادشده روی گوجه­فرنگی با میانگین مرگ 57 درصد می­باشد. میانگین درصد مرگ­ومیر ایجادشده روی توت‌فرنگی (50 درصد) نسبت به دو گیاه دیگر به طور معنی­داری کمتر بود. تجزیه واریانس داده­ها نشان داد که اثر همان سه گیاه میزبان بر میزان کشندگی قارچ روی افراد بالغ سن شکارگر و پوره­های سن پنجم با هم اختلاف معنی‌دار ندارند. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد، جدایه مورد استفاده، توانایی کشندگی خوبی روی جمعیت کنه داشته و نیز حصول نتیجه کنترلی مناسب قارچ علیه یک آفت روی یک گیاه میزبان، لزوماً به منزله اثربخشی آن عامل علیه همان گونه هدف روی گیاه دیگر نیست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


Agrawal A A (2000) Mechanisms, ecological consequences and agricultural implications of tritrophic interactions. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 3: 329-335.

Arasteh S, Zarabi M, Ghajareh H, Talaei-Hassanloui R (2012) Effect of host plants on susceptibility of silver leaf whitefly Bemisia argentifolii Belows and Perring (Hem.: Aleyrodidae) on the virulence of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill. National Conference on Modern Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, Zanjan, Iran. (in Persian)

Baniameri V, Soleyman-nejadian E, Mohaghegh J (2006) The predatory bug Orius niger: its biology and potential for controlling Thrips tabaci in Iran. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 29: 207-209.

Bolckmans K, Sterk G, Eyal J, Sels B, Stepman W (1995) PreFeRal(Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wise) Brown and Smith, strain Apopka 97), a new microbiological insecticide for the biological control of whiteflies in greenhouses. Med Fac Landbouww University Gent 60: 719-724.

Cedola CV, Sanches NE, Lilijesthorm GG (2001) Effect of tomato leaf hairiness on functional and numerical response of Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology25: 819-831.

Charnley AK (2003) Fungal pathogens of insects: cuticle degrading enzymes and toxins. Advances in Botanical Research 40: 241-321.

Costa SD, Gaugler R (1989) Influence of solanum host plants on Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) susceptibility to the entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana. Environmental Entomology18: 531-536.

Dagli F, Tunc I (2001) Dicofol resistance in Tetranychus cinnabarinus: Resistance and stability of resistance in populations from Antalya, Turkey. Pest Management Science 57: 609-614.

Dunkel FV, Jaronski DT (2003) Development of a bioassay system for the predator Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) and its use in subchronic toxicity/pathogenicity studies of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. Strain GHA. Journal of Economic Entomology 96: 1045-1053.

Ezzatabadipoor Z, Shirvani A, Rashki M (2015) Effects of host plants on the susceptibility of Cowpea Aphid, Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota, Hypocreales). Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 35(1): 27-36.

Fathi SAA, Nouri-Ganbalani G (2010) Assessing the potential for biological control of potato field pests in Ardabil, Iran: functional responses of Orius niger (Wolf.) and O. minutus (L.) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Journal of Pest Science 83: 47-52.

Gatarayiha MC, Laing M, Miller R (2009) Effects of adjuvant and conidial concentration on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. Experimental and Applied Acarology 50: 217-229.

Gorman K, Hewitt F, Denholm L, Devine GJ (2001) New developments in insecticide resistance in the glasshouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) and the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) in the UK. Pest Management Science 58: 123-130.

GoettelMS, Hajec AE, Siegel JP, Evans HC (2001) Safety of fungal biocontrol agents. In: Butt TM, Jackson CW, Magan N, (eds), Fungi as biocontrol agents. UK, CAB International. pp347-375.

Hughes WOH, Petersen KS, Ugelvig IV,  Pedersen D, Thomsen L, Poulsen M (2004) Density- dependence and within-host competition in a Semelparous parasite of  leaf-cutting ants. BMC Evolutionary Biology 4:45.

Inglis GD, Goettel MS, Butt TM, Strasser H (2001) Use of hyphomycetous fungi for managing insect pests. In: Butt TM, Jackson CW, Magan N (eds) Fungi as Biocontrol Agents. UK CABI International.PP23–70.Jaronski S, Lord J, Rosinska J, Bradley C, Hoelmer K, Simmons G, Osterlind R, Brown C, Staten R, Antilla L(1998) Effect of Beauveria bassiana-baced  mycoinsecticide on beneficial insects under field conditions. 1998 Brighton Conference. Pest Disease 3: 651-656.

Legaspi JC,  Poprawski TJ,  Legaspi BC (2000) Laboratory and field evaluation of Beauveria bassiana against sugarcane stalk borers (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Journal of Economic Entomology 93(1): 54-59.

Leora S (1987) POLO-PC: a user’s guide to probit or logit analysis. Berkeley, CA, USA: Leora Software.

Linnavuori, RE and Hosseini R (2000) Hemiptera of Guilan (with remarks on species of the adjacent areas Part 1). 1th ed. PP 94. Guilan University Publication.

Madadi H (1999) Investigation on identification the species of genus Orius Wolf(Hem.: Anthocoridae) in cucumber fields in Karaj and possiblity of their rearing. Msc. Thesis, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran. 112pp. (in Persian)

Maniania N, Bugeme D, Wekesa V, Delalibera I, Knapp M (2008) Role of entomopathogenic fungi in the control of Tetranychus evansi and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), pests of horticultural crops. Experimental and Applied Acarology46: 259-274.

Meyling NV, Pell JK (2006) Detection and avoidance an entomopathogenic fungus by a generalist insect predator. Ecological Entomology 31: 162-171.

Meyling NV, Pell JK, Eilenberg  J (2006) Dispersal of Beauveria bassiana by the activity of nettle insects predator. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 93: 121-126.

Mohammadi-Tabar H, Talaei-Hassanloui R, Allahyari H, Karimzadeh-Esfahani J, Ashouri A (2015) Fertility life-table parameters of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lep.: Plutellidae) on three host plants in the laboratory conditions. Iranian Journal of Plant Protection 46(2): 277-284. (in Persian)

Nachman G, Zemek R (2002) Interaction in a trophic acarine predator-prey metapopulation IV: effects of host plant condition on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology 26: 43-70.

Olleka A, Mandour N, Ren Sh (2009) Effect of host plant on susceptibility of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). Biocontrol Science and Technology 19(7): 717-727.

Poprawski TJ, Greenberg SM, Ciomperlik MA (2000) Effect of host plant on Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus induced mortality of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Journal of Environmental Entomology 29: 1048-1053.

 Pourian HR, Talaei-Hassanloui R, Kharazi-Pakdel A (2010a)  A Laboratory Investigation on Virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae on the Onion Thrips, Thrips tabaci (Thys.: Thripidae) and its Predator, Orius albidipennis (Hem.: Anthocoridae). Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 30(1):15-32. (in Persian)

Pourian HR, Talaei-Hassanloui R, Kosari AA,  Ashouri A (2010b) Effects of Metarhizium anisopliae on searching, feeding and predation by Orius albidipennis (Hem.: Anthocoridae) on Thrips tabaci (Thy.:Thripidae) larvae. Biocontrol Science and Technology 21(1): 15- 21.

Price PW, Bouton CE, Gross P, McPheron BA, Thompson JN, Weis AE (1980) Interactions among three trophic levels: Influence of plants on interactions between insect herbivores and natural enemies. Annual Review of Entomology 11: 41-65.

Püntener W(1981) Manual for field trials in plant protection. 2nd edition. Agricultural Division, Ciba-Geigy Limited.

Ramoska WA, Todd T (1985) Variation in efficacy and viability of Beauveria bassiana in the Chinch Bug (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) as a result of feeding activity on selected host plants.  Environmental Entomology 14: 146-148.

Santiago-Alvarez C, Maranhao EA, Maranhao E, Quesada-Moraga E (2006) Host plant influences pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana to Bemisia tabaci and its sporulation on cadavers. BioControl 51: 519-532.

Seiedy M, Saboori A, Allahyari H, Talaei-Hassanloui R, Tork M (2010) Laboratory investigation on the virulence of two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against the two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). International Journal of Acarology36: 527-532. 

Seyed-Talebi F, Tork P, Dilmagani MR, Talaei-Hassanloui R (2012) Potential synergism between Beauveria bassiana and ether-extract of Ginkgo biloba for control of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Journal of Crop Protection1: 49-55.

Sosa-Gomez DR, Bouclas D, Nation J (1997) Attachment of Metarhizium anisopliae to soughern green stink bug, Nezara viridula, cuticle and fungistatic effect of cuticular lipids aldehydes. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 69: 31-39.

SYSTAT Version13 [Computer program] (2000) Chicago, IL: SPSS Science Marketing Department SPSS Inc.

Skirvin DJ, Fenlon JS (2001) Plant species modifies the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari : Phytoseiidae) to Tetrnychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae): implications for biological control. Bulletin of Entomological Research 91: 61-67.

Tashiro H (1967) Self-watering acrylic for confining insects and mites on detached leaves. Journal of Economic Entomology 74: 213-213.

Van den Meiracker RAF (1999) Biocontrol of western flower thrips by heteropteran bugs. Ph.D. thesis, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.147pp.

Van der Geest LPS, Elliot SL, Breeuwer JAJ, Beerling EAM (2000) Diseases of mites. Experimental and Applied Acarology 24: 497-560.

Vidal C, Osborne LS, Lacey LA, Fragues J (1998) Effect of host plant on the potential of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for controlling the silver leaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouses. Biological Control 12: 191-199.