76043abf2ebed2c

تأثیر حضور اردک (Anas platyrhynchos) در شالیزار بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد برنج (L. Oryza sativa) و اثر آن بر انبوهی علف‌های هرز

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد و عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد لاهیجان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، لاهیجان

2 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکدة علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد لاهیجان

چکیده

به منظور تاثیر حضور اردک (Anas platyrhynchos) در شالیزار بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد برنج (Oryza sativa L.) و اثر آن بر روی انبوهی علف های هرز، آزمایشی در سال 1392 در روستای باز قلعه دژ، واقع در بخش سنگر استان گیلان اجرا گردید. این آزمایش در قالب اسپیلت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. در این آزمایش عامل اصلی اردک در دو سطح (با حضور اردک و بدون حضور اردک) و عامل فرعی به صورت فاکتوریل حاصل از ترکیب سطوح وجین (وجین در روز رهاسازی اردک و عدم وجین در روز رهاسازی اردک) و فاصله کاشت (20×20، 25×25، 30×30 سانتی‌متر) بود. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه واریانس داده‌های برنج نشان داد که، وجود اردک در شالیزار باعث افزایش  28/17 درصدی تعداد دانه پر در خوشه، 19/6 درصدی وزن هزار دانه، 13/11 درصدی شاخص برداشت، 5/9 درصدی عملکرد دانه شده است. همچنین نتایج حاصل از تجزیه واریانس داده‌های علف‌های هرز نشان داد که وجود اردک در شالیزار اثر بسیار معنی داری بر تراکم و زیست توده علف‌های هرز سوروف (Echinochloa crus-galli)، پیزر (Scirpus  maritimus)،  بندواش (Paspalum distichum) و تراکم علف های هرز در زمان برداشت داشته است. نتایج نشان داد که، وجود اردک باعث کاهش 93/38 درصدی سوروف، 29/58 درصدی پیزر، 48/47 درصدی بندواش در زمان برداشت، 58/34 درصدی زیست توده سوروف، 88/40 درصدی زیست توده پیزر، 69/62 درصدی زیست توده بندواش و 77/53 درصدی تراکم علف هرز در زمان برداشت در مقایسه با تیمار بدون حضور اردک در شالیزار شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


Aminpanah H (2011) Competing and non-competing reaction of rice cultivars to different weed densities of barnyardgrass. Journal of Crop Production. 4(4): 67-84. (in Persian)

Ahmed, GJU, Hossain ST, Islam MDR, Rabbi MDF (2004) Rice-duck farming reduces weeding and insecticide requirement and increases grain yield and income of farmers. International rice research notes. 29(1): 74-77.

Balachandran PV, Louis v, Padmakumar KG (2006) Rice-Fish integration through organic farming, Agrotech Publishing Academy Udaipur, India. pp. 304.

Choi S Y, Shin BW, Kim DHS, Yoo JJ, Soo D, Rhee GS (1996)  Rice growth and improvement of soil properties following rice-duck farming in a paddy field. Journal of agricultural science and soil fertilizers. 38(1): 382-388.

Duong–xuan t (2003) Improvement of land use by rice-fish-duck integrated system vigova duck breeding farm, vietnam.

Deng QH, Pan XH (2008) Effects of rice–duck mutualism on diseases insect pests and weeds and economic benefits. Journal of Anhui Agric. Science. 36: 7752-7755.

Esmaili M, Mobser HR, Haidari sharifabad H, Akbarpur rushan NE, Eftekhari E (2006) The impact of treatment on the properties of biological control of plant debris and weeds and agronomic traits in rice ratoon crop combination with. Journal of Knowledge Modern Agriculture. 2(5): 1-12. (in Persian)

Flah pour F, Kocheki E, Nasiri mahalati M, Flahati rastegar M, Ghorbani R (2010) Evaluation of biological control of weeds sauce (Cuscuta campestris L.) using fungal pathogens. Journal of Agricultural Ecology. 2(3): 407-416. (in Persian)

Furuno T (1996) Significance and practice of integrated rice cultivation and duck farming-sustainable agriculture. Kyushu International Center, Japan International Cooperation Agency and Kitakyushu Forum on Asian Women. pp. 12.

Gabriel D, Tscharntke G (2007) Insect pollinated plants benefit from organic farming. Agriculture, Ecosystems and  Environment 118: 43-48.

Huang H, Yang ZH, Wang H, Hu ZY, Chen SG, Chen C (2003) A study on the pattern of methane emission in wetland rice–duck complex ecosystems. Acta Ecol. Sinica. 23: 929-934.

Hossain S, Sugimoto H, Uddin Ahmed GJ, Islam MR (2004) Effect of integrated rice-duck farming on rice yield, farm productivity, and rice-provisioning ability of farmers. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development. 2(1): 79-86.

Hossain ST, Ahmed GJU, Islam MR, Mahabub AA (2002) Role of ducks in controlling weeds and insects in integrated rice-duck farming. Bangladesh Journal of Environmental Science. 6(2): 424-427.

Heafele SM, Johnson DE, M’Bodj D, Wopereis MCS, Miezan, KM (2004) Field screening of diverse rice genotypes for weed competitiveness in irrigated lowland ecosystems. Field Crops Research. 88: 39-56.

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL (1977) The world’s worst weeds. University Press of Hawaii. Honolulu.

Hou LG, Zhao GC, Liu L, Guo XM, Sui PJ, Sun HJ (2009) Studies on controlling pest and weeds by integrated rice–duck farming technology. Journal of Jilin Agric. Sciences. 34: 36-38.

Isobe K, Asano H, Tsuboki Y (1998) Effects of cultivation methods on the emergence of weeds and the Growth and yield of paddy rice, with special reference to using aigamo ducks. Japanese Journal of Crop Science. 67(3): 297-301.

Islam SS, Azam MG, Adhikary SK, Wickramarachchi KS (2004) Efficiency of Integrated Rice, Fish and Duck Polyculture as Compared to Rice and Fish Culture in a Selective Area of Khulna District Bangladesh, Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 7(4): 468-471.

Kang YS, Kim JG, Park KH, Kang YS, Kim JI, Park JH (1995) Influence of rice-duck farming System on yield and quality of rice. Korean Journal of Crop Science. 40(4): 437- 443.

Kim HD, Park JS, Bang KH, Cho YC, Park KY, Kwon KC, Rhoe YD (1994) Rice growth and yield response in a rice/duck farming system in paddy fields. Korean Journal of Crop Science. 39(4): 339-347.

Krogh KA, Mogensen K, Vejrup V (2003) Environmental properties and effects of nonionic surfactant adjuvants in pesticides: a Review. Chemosphere. 50: 871-901.

Karbalaie MT (2004) Effect of integrated rice and duck cultivation on controlling of weed and azolla in paddy fields. Final report. Ministry of jihad-e-agriculture reserch and education organization. pp: 1-22. (in Persian)

Kishida Y (1994) comination style of soil, posture and lives as an ecological production technique. Proceeding 1993 of tsukuba asian seminar on agricultural eduction. pp: 109-125.

Lu JX, Zhang JE, Huang ZX (2005) Anauxiliary controlmethodof rice–duck farming system leaf roller: the rope scraping of rice tail. China Rice. 3: 39-46.

Long P, Huang H, Liao X, Fu Z, Zheng H, Chen A, Chen C (2013) Mechanism and capacities of reducing ecological cost through rice–duck cultivation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 93: 2881-2891.

Li YM, Zhao SQ, Chen SC, Di XG (2004) Effects of the technique of raising Ducks in rice fields on the control of main pests and weeds. China Plant Prot. 24: 14-15.

Mohammadi M, Pirdashti H, Aqajani mazandarani, Musavi taghany SY (2012) Performance evaluation as an agent of biological diversity and density of duck weed in cultivated rice combination - ducks, Journal of Agricultural Ecology. 4(4): 335-346. (in Persian)

Mohammadi s, Habibi D, Paknejad F, Mohaddsi E, Bakhshi pour S (2010) Effect of plant density on yield and yield components of rice cultivars using machine transplanting. Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding. 6(4):49-59. (in Persian)

Macfadyen S, Gibson R, Raso L, Sint D, Traugott M, Memmott M (2009) Parasitoid control of aphids in organic and conventional farming systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 133: 14-18.

Ma GQ, Zhuang YJ, Zhou MC (2002) Production techniques for pollution free Intercropping of rice and duck. Agric Equip Technol. 28: 20-21.

Minh NT, Ly LV, Orskov ER, Gill M (2005) The duck-fish-rice system in agricultural sustainable development and poultry product safety in Vietnam.

Quan GM, Zhang JE, Teng LL, Chen R, Xu RB (2008) Effects of integrated Rice–duck farming on rice root growth. Journal South China Agric. University. 29: 1-5.

Qu JL (2010) Research on rice–duck commensalisms to control weed and Pests. Heilongjiang Agric. Science. 6: 67-69.

Shouhui W, Sheng Q, Bo M (2006) Influence of long-term rice-duck farming systems on the composition and diversity old weed communities in paddy fields. Acta Phytoecologica Science. 30(1): 9-16.

Tojo S, Yoshizawa M, Motobayashi T, Watanabe K (2004) Effects of loosing Aigamo ducks on the growth of rice plants, weeds, and the number of arthropods in paddy fields. Weed Biol. Management. 7: 38-43.

Ye YH, Lu CG, Chen XC, Cheng YG, Wang S, Zhao JJ (2006) Effects of duck density on rice diseases and pests. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences. 34: 5583.

Youesfnia Pasha H, Tabatabae Koloor R, Aghagolzadeh H, Hashemi J (2012) Study the effect of different weed control methods on yield and yield components of rice. Weed Science Journal. 8: 93-105. (in Persian)

Yu SM, Ouyang YN, Zhang QY, Peng GD, Xu H, Jin QY (2005) Effects of rice-duck farming system on Oryza sativa growth and its yield. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. 16(7): 1252-1256.

Yu SM, Jin QY, Ouyang YN, Xu DH (2004) Efficiency of controlling weeds, Insectpests anddiseases by raisingducks in the paddy fields. Chinese J Biol Control. 20: 99-102.

Yang ZH, Huang H, Wang H (2004) Paddy soil quality of a wetland Rice–duck complex ecosystem. Acta Pedol Sinica. 35: 117-121.

Wang H, Huang H, Yang ZH, Liao XL (2003) Integrated benefits of rice-duck complex ecosystem. Rural Ecosystem and Environment. 19: 23-26.

Wei SH, Qiang S, Ma B, Wei JG, Chen JW, Wu JQ (2005) Control effects of rice–duck farming and other weed management strategies on weed communities in paddy fields. Chinese J Appl Ecol. 16: 1067-1071.

Zhang JE, Xu R, Chen X, Quan G (2009) Effects of duck activities on a weed community under a Transplanted rice-duck farming system in southern China. Weed Biology and Management. 9: 250-257.

Zhao DL, Atlin GN, Bastiaans L, Spiertz JHJ (2006) Comparing rice germplasm for growth, grain yield, and weed-suppressive ability under aerobic soil conditions. Weed Research. 46: 444-452.

Zhu FG, Feng QS, Zhuge Z (2004) Control impact of rice–duck ecological structure on harmful biotic community of rice fields. Acta Agric Zhejiangensis. 16: 37-41.

Zhen RH, Wang QS, Zhang WJ, Bian XM, Li YX, Shen XK (2007) Ecological control effects of rice–duck integrated farming on main diseases, insects and weeds in paddy fields ecosystem. Journal of Nanjing Agric. University. 30: 60-64.