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فراسنجه‌های زیستی بالتوری سبز( Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens با تغذیه از پسیل معمولی پستة تیمار‌شده با سه عصارة گیاهی و آفت‌کش آمیتراز

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشدگیاه پزشکی، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر رفسنجان

2 دانشیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر رفسنجان

3 دانشیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

بالتوری سبز معمولی Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) یکی از دشمنان طبیعی مهم حشرات آفت است. در این پژوهش، تأثیرات جنبی چند عصارة گیاهی شامل استبرق Calotropis procera (Willd.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae)، شاه‌تره Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae) و اکالیپتوس Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) و آفت‌کش آمیتراز بر پارامترهای زیستی لاروهای سن دوم بالتوری سبز بررسی شد. آزمایش‌ها در دمای 2±26 درجة سلسیوس، رطوبت نسبی 5±65 درصد و دورة نوری 16 ساعت روشنایی و 8 ساعت تاریکی به دو روش تیمار تماس موضعی و گوارشی با تغذیه از پسیل معمولی پسته،  Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lautererانجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که طول دورة رشدی (لارو سن دوم تا حشرة کامل) در شرایط تیمار لاروها به روش گوارشی با عصارة گیاهی استبرق و آفت‌کش آمیتراز نسبت به تیمار آن‌ها با آب (شاهد) طولانی‌تر بود و بین تیمارها با شاهد اختلاف معنی‌دار وجود نداشت. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین زنده‌مانی برای حشرات کامل 127 روز برای تیمار اکالیپتوس و کمترین آن 110 و 113 روز به‌ترتیب برای تیمار آمیتراز و استبرق مشاهده شد. در تیمار تماس موضعی اثر تیمارها بر دورة رشد پیش از بلوغ معنی‌دار نبود. دورة پیش از بلوغ در تیمار شاتره با 76/22 روز بیشترین و در تیمار استبرق با 96/21 روز کمترین بود. نتایج نشان داد که اثر تغذیة شکارگر از پسیل‌های آلوده به عصاره‌ها و آفت‌کش آمیتراز بیشتر از تماس موضعی با آن‌هاست. افزایش اثر تیمارها روی مراحل رشدی شکارگر با افزایش عمر، آثار زیرکشندگی تیمارها را نشان می‌دهد. در راهبرد مدیریت تلفیقی آگاهی از این‌گونه تأثیرات کمک خواهد کرد که در به‌کارگیری ترکیبات ایمن برای دشمن طبیعی به تمام جنبه‌های اثر ترکیب توجه شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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