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نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران.

3 استاد/پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

4 بخش تحقیقات رستنیها، مؤسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در این پژوهش، تاثیر قارچ‌های درون‌زی (mycoendobiont) جداشده از قارچ دکمه‌ای سفید علیه قارچ‌های Mycogone perniciosa، Lecanicillium fungicula و Trichoderma harzianum، به‌عنوان عوامل بیماری‌زای مهم آن، برای کاربرد جهت مهار زیستی و جایگزینی ترکیبات شیمیایی بررسی گردید. جدایه‌های درون‌زی از کلاهک، تیغه و ساقه اندام‌های کاملا سالم قارچ دکمه‌ای که از سالن‌های پرورش عمده کشت قارچ در کشور، جمع‌آوری‌شده بودند، جداسازی شدند. این جدایه‌ها ابتدا در آزمون کشت متقابل علیه جدایه‌های بیمارگر قارچ دکمه‌ای غربال و سپس از بین آنها جدایه‌های موثر برای آزمایش‌های گلخانه‌ای انتخاب شدند. اسپان قارچ دکمه‌ای با جدایه‌های منتخب تیمار شد و درصد وقوع بیماری ناشی از عوامل بیمارگر و نیز شاخص‌های رشدی، تعیین شدند. تمام جدایه‌های درون‌زی مورد آزمایش، توانایی محدود کردن و رقابت با بیمارگرها را داشتند و وقوع بیماری‌ حباب‌تر (M. perniciosa) را به میزان 42/21 تا 61/97 درصد، بیماری حباب ‌خشک (L. fungicula) را به میزان 63/60 تا 80/96 درصد و بیماری کپک سبز (T. harzianum) را به میزان 28/64 تا 93/96 درصد کنترل کردند. این آزمون در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی و با سه تکرار انجام شد. گونه‌های درون‌زی Fusarium venenatum و Clonostachys rosea بیشترین اثر بازدارندگی از رشد را در برابر هر سه بیمار‌گر نشان دادند. همچنین، جدایه Scedosporium apiospermum دارای اثر بازدارندگی از رشد در برابر دو قارچ بیمارگر M. perniciosa و T. harzianum بود. این پژوهش نشان داد که قارچ‌های درون‌زی قارچ دکمه‌ای می‌توانند به عنوان عوامل مهار زیستی و بهبود دهنده رشد قارچ دکمه‌ای با هدف کاربردی نمودن آنها مورد توجه قرار گیرند.

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