بررسی زهرآگینی و نحوه تندش کنیدی جدایه های مختلف قارچ Beauveria bassiana

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 دانشجوی دکترا-دانشگاه ارومیه

2 دانشگاه ارومیه

3 گروه گیاهپزشکی - دانشگاه تهران

4 دانشگاه تهران


در پژوهش حاضر، جداسازی جدایه‌های مختلف قارچ Beauveria bassiana از خاک مناطق مختلف و بررسی زهرآگینی آن‌ها علیه سن گندم(Hem.: Scutelleridae) Eurygaster integriceps، سوسک Zophobas morio (Col.: Tenebrionidae) و شب‌پره آرد (Lep.: Pyralidae) Ephestia kuehniella انجام شد. از نمونه‌های خاک مناطق کرج، ارومیه، ماکو و دزفول، 23 جدایه قارچ B. bassiana توسط تله گالریا، جداسازی و شناسایی شد. حشرات به روش غوطه‌وری با این جدایه‌ها آلوده شدند، بر اساس نتایج پوره‌های سن 5 سن گندم و لاروهای سن 4 شب‌پره آرد به تمام جدایه‌ها حساس بودند درحالی که لارو سن آخر سوسک مقاوم بود و هیچ مرگی ثبت نشد. بیش‌ترین تلفات به‌وسیله‌ی جدایه‌های TV و TZ با حدود 90 درصد مرگ روی هر دو میزبان E .kuehniella و E. integriceps مشاهده شد که در بالاترین گروه زهرآگینی قرار گرفتند. بر اساس زهرآگینی، جدایه‌ها به سه دسته تقسیم‌بندی شدند: جدایه‌های با زهر‌آگینی کم (ایجاد 10 تا 33 درصد مرگ)، جدایه‌های با زهر‌آگینی متوسط (ایجاد 34 تا 67 درصد مرگ) و جدایه‌های با زهر‌آگینی زیاد (ایجاد 68 تا 100 درصد مرگ). روی محیط کشت PDA دو نوع تندش یک‌طرفه و دوطرفه برای کنیدی‌های جدایه‌ها تشخیص داده شد. درصد این دو نوع تندش بین جدایه‌ها تفاوت معنی‌داری داشت، بین نوع تندش و زهرآگینی همبستگی معنی‌داری دیده نشد.



Akbar W, Lord JC, Nechols JR, Howard RW (2004) Diatomaceous earth increases the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana against Tribolium castaneum larvae and increases conidia attachment. Journal of Economic Entomology 97 (2): 273-280.
Altre JA, Vandenberg JD, Cantone, FA (1999) Pathogenicity of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolates to Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella: Correlation with spore size, germination speed, and attachment to cuticle. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 73: 332-338.
Brey PT, Latge JP, Prevost MC (1986) Integumental penetration of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, by Conidiobolus obscurus (Entomophthoraceae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 48: 34-41.
Butt TM, Jackson C, Magan N (2001) Introduction: Fungal biological control agents: progress, problems and potential, In: Butt T M, Jackson C, Magan N (eds.). Fungi as biocontrol agents: progress, problems and potential. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. pp: 1-8
Charnley AK (2003) Fungal pathogens of insects: cuticle degrading enzymes and toxins. Advances in Botanical Research 40: 241-321.
Devi KU, Padmavathi J, Rao CUM, Khan PAA, Mohan CM (2008) A study of host specificity in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). Biocontrol Science and Technology 18 (10): 975-989.
Draganova S, Markova E (2006) Bioassays with isolates of Entomopathogenic fungi against Ephestia kuehniella Zell. (Lep.: Pyralidae). Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 12 (5): 637-643.
Eilenberg J, Vlak JM, Nielsen-LeRoux C, Cappellozza S, Jensen AB (2015) Diseases in insects produced for food and feed. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 1 (2): 87-102.
Faraji S, Mehrvar A, Derakhshan Shadmehri A (2013) Studies on the virulence of different isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metcsn.) Sorokin against Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lep.: Pyralidae) African Journal of Agricultural Research 8 (30): 4157-4161.
Faria M, Wraight P (2007) Mycoinsecticides and Mycoacaricides: A comprehensive list with worldwide coverage and international classification of formulation types. Biological Control 43: 237-256.
Goettel MS, Hajek AE, Siegel JP, Evans HC (2001) Safety of fungal biocontrol agents, In: Butt TM, Jackson CW, Magan N (eds.) Fungal as biocontrol agent. CAB International, walling ford, UK. pp. 346-347.
Goettel MS, Johnson DL, Inglis GD (1955) The role of fungi in the biological control of grasshoppers. Canadian Journal of Botany 73 (1): 1-75.
Greathead DJ (1992) Natural enemies of tropical locusts and grasshoppers: their impact and potential as biological control agents, In: Lomer CJ, Prior C (eds.), Biological control of locusts and grasshoppers. Wallingford, UK: C. A. B. International. pp. 105-121.
Hajek AE, St. Lege RG. 1994. Interactions between fungal pathogens and insect hosts. Annual Review of Entomology 39: 293-322.
Hajek, AE, Shimazu M (1996) Types of spores produced by Entomophaga maimaiga infecting the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. Canadian Journal of Botany 74: 708-715.
Haji Allahverdi Pour H, Ghazavi M, Kharazi-Pakdel A (2008) Comparison of the virulence of some Iranian isolates of Beauveria bassiana to Eurygaster integriceps (Hem.: Scutelleridae) and production of the selected isolate. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 28(1): 13-26.
Humber RA (2005) Entomopathogenic Fungal Identification. Available on: www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/1907051 0/APSwkshoprev.pdf
Inglis GD, Goettel MS, Butt TM, Strasser, H (2001) Use of hyphomycetous fungi for managing insect pests. In: Butt TM, Jackson C, Magan N (eds.), Fungi as biocontrol agents: progress, problems and potential. CABI, Wallingford. pp. 27-69.
Kazemi Yazdi1 F, Eilenberg J, Mohammadipour A (2011) Biological Characterization of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) from Overwintering Sites of Sunn Pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Hem.: Scutelleridae) in Iran. International Journal of Agricultural Science and Research 2 (3): 7-16.
Klingen I, Haukeland S (2006) The soil as a reservoir for natural enemies of pest insects and mites with emphasis on fungi and nematodes, In: Eilenberg J, Hokkanen HMT (eds.) An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands. pp. 145-211.
Lord JC (2009) Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for control of Tribolium castaneum with reduced oxygen and increased carbon dioxide. Journal of Applied Entomology 133 (2): 101-107.
Meyling NV (2007) Methods for isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from the soil environment. Laboratory manual pp: 1-18.
Meyling NV, Eilenberg J (2006) Occurrence and distribution of soil borne entomopathogenic fungi within a single organic agro ecosystem. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 113: 336-341.
Mohammadbeigi A, Port G (2013) Pathogenicity of the isolates Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on different nymph instars of the Sunn pest Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hem.: Scutelleridae). International Journal of AgriScience 3 (12): 912-920.
Ngumbi PM, Irungu LW, Ndegwa PN, Maniania, NK (2011) Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch.) Sorok. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. to adult Phlebotomus duboscqi (Neveu-Lemaire) in the laboratory. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 48: 37-40.
Nouri Aiin M, Askary H, Imani S, Zare R (2014) Isolation and characterization of entomopathogenic fungi from hibernating sites of Sunn Pest (Eurygaster integriceps) on Ilam Mountains. Iran International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 3(12): 314-325.
Parker BL, Skinner ML, Costa SD, Gouli S, Reid W, El Bouhssini M (2003). Entomopathogenic fungi of Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hem.:Scutelleridae): collection and characterization for development. Biological Control 27: 260-272.
Pedrini N, Villaverde ML, Fuse CB, Dal Bello GM, Juarez MP (2010) Beauveria bassiana Infection Alters Colony Development and Defensive Secretions of the Beetles Tribolium castaneum and Ulomoides dermestoides (Col.: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 103 (4): 1094-1099.
Raja Rishi R, Borah RK, Kumar R, Pandey S (2013) Isolation, identification and mass production of soil microbes and their utility for biocontrol. International Journal of Advanced Life Sciences 6 (3): 168-173.
Riba G, Couteaudier Y, Maurer P, Neuveglise C (1994) Molecular Methods Offer New Challenges for Fungal Bioinsecticides, in VIth International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control. pp: 16-22.
Sanchez-Pena SR, Lara JS , Medina RF (2011) Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi from agricultural and natural ecosystems in Saltillo, Mexico, and their virulence towards thrips and whiteflies. Journal of Insect Science 11 (1): 1-10.
Santiago-Alvarez C, Maranhao EA, Maranhao E, Quesada-Moraga E (2006) Host plant influences pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana to Bemisia tabaci and its sporulation on cadavers. BioControl 51: 519-532.
SAS Institute (2002).SAS for Windows, Release 9.1, Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute Inc.
Sevim A, Demir İ, Hofte M, Humber RA, Demirbag Z (2010) Isolation and characterization of entomopathogenic fungi from hazelnut-growing region of Turkey. BioControl 55: 279-297.
St. Leger RJ, Joshi L, Bidochka MJ, Rizzo N, Roberts DW (1996) Biochemical characterization and ultrastructural localization of two extracellular trypsins produced by Metarhizium anisopliae in infected insect cuticles. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62: 1257-1264.
St. Leger RJ, Bidochka MJ, Roberts DW (1994) Germination triggers of Metarhizium anisopliae conidia are related to host species. Microbiology 140: 1651-1660.
Suderman RJ, Dittmer NT, Kanost MR, Kramer KJ (2006) Model reactions for insect cuticle sclerotization: Cross-linking of recombinant cuticular proteins upon their laccase-catalyzed oxidative conjugation with catechols. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 36 (4): 353-365.
Talaei-Hassanloui R, Kharazi-Pakdel A (2002) Evaluation of Sunn Pest, Eurygaster integriceps Put. susceptibility in different developmental stages to Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Alternative Methods of Plant Pest and Diseases Control, 4-7 March., Lille, France. 588-591.
Talaei-Hassanloui R, Kharazi-Pakdel A, Goettel MS, Mozaffari, J (2006) Variation in virulence of Beauveria bassiana isolates and its relatedness to some morphological characteristics. Biocontrol Science and Technology 16:525-534.
Talaei-Hassanloui R, Kharazi-Pakdel A, Goettel MS, Little S, Mozaffari, J (2007) Germination polarity of Beauveria bassiana conidia and its possible correlation with virulence. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 94: 102-107.
Todorova SI, Cote JC, Martel P, Coderre D (1994) Heterogeneity of two Beauveria bassiana strains revealed by biochemical tests, protein profiles and bioassays on Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Col.: Chrysomelidae) and Coleomegilla maculata lengi (Col.: Coccinellidae) larvae. Entomophaga 39: 159-169.
Trissi A, El Bouhssini M, Al Salti MN, Abdulhai M, Skinner M, Parker BL (2012) Virulence of Beauveria bassiana against Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hem.: Scutelleridae) at different time periods of application. Journal of Entomology and Nematology 4(5): 49-53    
Vandenberg JD, Ramos M, Altre JA (1998) Dose-response and age- and temperature-related susceptibility of the diamondback moth (Lep.: Plutellidae) to two isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Hyphomycetes: Moniliaceae). Environmental Entomology 27: 1017-1021.
Vega F, Kaya H (2012) Insect Pathology, 2nd Edition. Academic Press, USA.
Wakefield ME, Cox PD, Moore D, Aquino De Muro M, Bell BA (2005) Mycopest: Results and perspectives. In: Proceedings of the 6th Meeting of COST Action 842 Working Group IV Biocontrol of Arthropod Pests in Stored Products, 10-11 Jun., Locorotondo, Italy. 17-26.
Wraight SP, Ramos ME, Avery PB, Jaronski, ST, Vandenberg, JD (2010) Comparative virulence of Beauveria bassiana isolates against lepidopteran pests of vegetable crops. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 103: 186-199.
Yezerski A, Ciccone C, Rozitski J, Volingavage B (2007) The effects of a naturally produced enzoquinone on microbes common to flour. Journal of Chemical Ecology 33 (6): 1217-1225.
Yip, HY, Rath AC, Koen TB (1992) Characterization of Metarhizium anisopliae isolates from Tasmanian pasture soils and their pathogenicity to redheaded cockchafer (Col.: Scarabaeidae, Adoryphorus couloni). Mycological Research 96: 92-96.
Zare M, Talaei-Hassanloui R, Fotouhifar K (2014) Relatedness of proteolytic potency and virulence in entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana isolates. Journal of Crop Prote