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ارزیابی توانایی کنترل بیولوژیک مخمر Pichia membranaefaciens در برابر بیمارگرهای پوسیدگی خوشۀ انگور Aspergillus tubingensis و Penicillium crustosum

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان

2 دانشیار گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان

3 دانشیار گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکدۀ کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

بیماری پوسیدگی خوشه یکی از بیماری­های مهم انگور است که توسط شماری از قارچ­های عامل پوسیدگی انباری از جمله Aspergillus tubingensis و Penicillium crustosum ایجاد می­شود. در این تحقیق برخی از سازوکار­های کنترل بیولوژیک دو جدایه از مخمر Pichia membranaefaciens شامل توانایی رقابتی، توانایی تولید سیدروفور و زهرابه (توکسین)، برهمکنش بین یاخته­های مخمری با میسلیوم قارچی و توانایی تولید آنزیم‌های تجزیه‌کننده در برابر بیمارگرهای قارچی بررسی شد. در شرایط آزمایشگاهی جدایه­های مخمر توانایی رقابتی بالایی علیه بیمارگرها در محیط کشت PDA  اصلاحی با میزان پایین قند دکستروز نشان دادند. این جدایه­ها افزون بر بازدارندگی از رشد بیمارگرها در آزمون کشت متقابل با دو میزان متفاوت قند دکستروز، توانایی تولید سیدروفور و زهرابه را هم نشان دادند. نتایج مربوط به بررسی برهمکنش­های بین بیمارگرهای قارچی و مخمرهای آنتاگونیست، نشان داد که یاخته­های مخمر در اتصال به میسلیوم­های بیمارگرها توانایی بالایی دارند. در ادامۀ این بررسی برهمکنش، توانایی تولید آنزیم­های تجزیه‌کننده توسط جدایه­ها نیز مشاهده شد. در شرایط انباری میزان آلودگی خوشه­ها به بیمارگرهای A. tubingensis وP. crustosum توسط جدایۀ P4 به‌ترتیب 16/49 درصد و 64/62 درصد و توسط P5 به­ترتیب 88/44 درصد و 3/50 درصد کاهش داده شدند. بنابر نتایج این تحقیق هر دو جدایه در شرایط آزمایشگاهی و انباری قابلیت کنترل بیولوژیک رشد بیمارگرها را دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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