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بررسی تأثیر اسانس چهار گیاه دارویی و دو گونة Trichoderma در کنترل زیستی قارچ‌های عامل پوسیدگی میوة انگور

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 استادیار بیماری شناسی گیاهی گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکدة کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل

2 دانشجوی دکتری بیماری شناسی گیاهی گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج

چکیده

انگور همانند دیگر محصولات باغی به دلیل داشتن رطوبت زیاد، pH نسبی پایین و غنی بودن از مواد غذایی، در معرض حملة انواع بیمارگرهای قارچی در مراحل برداشت و انبارداری قرار دارد. در این تحقیق، در آغاز اقدام به جداسازی قارچ‌های بیماری‌زای پس از برداشت انگور در منطقة مشگین‌شهر شد و قارچ‌های Botrytis cinerea و Cladosporium cladosporioides به­عنوان گونه‌های غالب شناسایی شدند. Aspergillus tubingensis نیز به عنوان عامل پوسیدگی و زهرابه‌زا (توکسین­زا) روی انگور و کشمش برای این بررسی انتخاب شد. سپس به منظور ارزیابی امکان کنترل زیستی (بیولوژیک) آن‌ها، تأثیر دو گونة Trichoderma harzianum T447 و T. hamatum T622 و اسانس چهار گیاه دارویی پونة کوهی، نعناع خوراکی، رازیانه و بومادران در شرایط آزمایشگاهی ارزیابی شد. نتایج نشان داد که هر دو گونة قارچ آنتاگونیست در رقابت تغذیه‌ای موفق‌تر از قارچ‌های بیمارگر هستند، ترکیبات فرّار این قارچ­ها بیشترین تأثیر بازدارندگی را در تعامل با  C. cladosporioides نشان دادند. غلظت 10 درصد ترشحات برون ‌یاخته‌ای جدایة T. harzianum T447 نیز بازدارندگی بیش از 85 درصد علیه قارچ‌های بیمارگر نشان داد. همچنین معلوم شد که بین گونة قارچی، نوع اسانس و غلظت‌های مختلف آن در میزان بازدارندگی از رشد میسلیومی قارچ‌ها تفاوت معنی‌داری (01/0P≤) وجود دارد. پونة کوهی و رازیانه به ترتیب به­عنوان مؤثرترین و ضعیف‌ترین اسانس‌ها‌‌ شناخته شدند. تجزیة GC-MS چهار اسانس نام‌برده نیز نشان داد که به ترتیب پی­پریتون و سیس­پی­پریتون اکسید، ال­منتون، دی­متیل-4 (ای)­6-اکتادین­-2-ال و ترنس­آنتول اجزای اصلی آن‌ها هستند. با توجه به بازدارندگی مناسب اسانس­ها و قارچ­های کنترل زیستی نام‌برده، تحقیقات تکمیلی در زمینة به­کارگیری آن‌ها برای کنترل بیماری­های پس از برداشت انگور توصیه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


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