برهم‌کنش بین سطوح مختلف کوددهی نیتروژن در گیاه کلزا با شتة ‌خردل (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.) و پشة شکارگر (Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 دکتری بوم شناسی زراعی، گروه زراعت دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استاد گروه زراعت دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استادیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد


کیفیت گیاه میزبان نه تنها بر آفات گیاه‌خوار، بلکه به‌صورت غیرمستقیم می‌تواند بر توانایی زیستی دشمنان طبیعی آن‌ها نیز اثر بگذارد. این پژوهش به‌منظور بررسی اثر مقادیر مختلف کوددهی نیتروژن در گیاه کلزا (Brassica napus L.) بر پارامترهای جدول زندگی پشة شکارگر (Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani; Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) در تغذیه از شتة خردل (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.; Hemiptera: Aphididae) تحت شرایط کنترل‌شدة دما (روز 2±25 و شب 2±19درجة سلسیوس) و رطوبت (10±60 درصد) انجام شد. برای ایجاد کیفیت‌های مختلف شتة خردل، ابتدا شته‌های خردل روی گیاهان کلزا، تحت چهار تیمار کودی صفر، 055/0، 11/0 و 165/0 گرم نیتروژن بر کیلوگرم خاک پرورش یافتند و سپس، مورد تغذیۀ پشة شکارگر قرار گرفتند. دورة نشو و نمای مراحل مختلف رشدی پشة شکارگر به‌صورت روزانه ثبت شد و برآورد پارامترهای جدول زندگی با استفاده از رویة جدول زندگی دوجنسی انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش کوددهی نیتروژن در گیاه کلزا، دورة رشد و نمو لارو و شفیرة شکارگر را به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش داد و به افزایش معنی‌دار دورة تخم‌ریزی حشرات ماده منجر شد. همچنین، با افزایش کوددهی نرخ انتقال نیز کاهش یافت. در مجموع سطوح میانی و بالای کوددهی نیتروژن به بهبود توانایی زیستی پشة شکارگر منجر شدند. با توجه به آنکه بیشترین نرخ خالص تولید مثل (54/31 تخم به ازای هر فرد) و نرخ ذاتی افزایش جمعیت (163/0 بر روز) نیز با اختلاف معنی‌دار در سطح میانی کوددهی نیتروژن (11/0 گرم نیتروژن در کیلوگرم خاک) مشاهده شدند، می‌توان این سطح را به‌عنوان سطح مطلوب پشة شکارگر معرفی کرد.



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