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تاثیر اسانس گیاه سیر، مانکوزب و متالاکسیل- مانکوزب روی سه گونه قارچ فیتوفتورا،عوامل بوته میری گیاهان

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدةکشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان

2 دانشیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکدةکشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان

3 استادیار گروه باغبانی، دانشکدةکشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان

چکیده

در این تحقیق تأثیرات ضد قارچی اسانس گیاه سیر و دو قارچ‌کش متالاکسیل ـ مانکوزب و مانکوزب علیه سه گونة Phytophthora capsici، P. drechsleri و P. melonis عوامل بوته‌میری گیاهان فلفل، خیار و طالبی در شرایط آزمایشگاه و گلخانه ارزیابی شد. تأثیر اسانس سیر و قارچ‌کش‌ها روی کاهش رشد پرگنة قارچ بیمارگر به روش اختلاط با محیط کشت محاسبه و میزان EC50 اسانس سیر روی گونه‌های فیتوفتورا نیز اندازه‌گیری شد. شناسایی ترکیبات تشکیل‌دهندة اسانس سیر نیز با استفاده از دستگاه کروماتوگرافی با طیف‌سنجی جرمی (GC-MS) انجام شد. نتایج آزمایشگاهی نشان داد که اسانس سیر خاصیت قارچ‌ایستایی و تأثیر چشمگیری روی کاهش رشد پرگنة گونه‌های فیتوفتورا دارد. بیشترین و کمترین میزان بازدارندگی رشد ناشی از اسانس سیر به‌ترتیب متعلق به P. capsici و P. drechsleri بود. نتایج گلخانه‌‌ای هم نشان داد که اسانس سیر به‌طور چشمگیری باعث کاهش شدت بیماری بوته‌میری (5/81-7/73 درصد) در مقایسه با شاهد شد، به‌طوری که، تأثیرات آن از لحاظ آماری بیشتر از قارچ‌کش مانکوزب (4/68ـ5/60 درصد) و کمتر از قارچ‌کش متالاکسیل ـ مانکوزب (1/92ـ2/84 درصد) روی کاهش بیماری بود. تعداد 25 ترکیب شیمیایی از اسانس سیر جداسازی و شناسایی شد که در بین آن‌ها Diallyl tetra sulfide (32/31 درصد)، Allyl disulfide (78/26 درصد)، Nitrosothymol (64/8 درصد)، 1H-1,2,4-Triazole, 3-thiol-5-methyl (40/8 درصد) وAllylsulphide (15/6 درصد) به‌ترتیب بیشترین مقادیر را به خود اختصاص دادند. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که اسانس سیر توانایی لازم برای کنترل بیماری بوته‌میری گیاهان را به‌عنوان قارچ‌کش در تولید محصولات ارگانیک دارد و نیاز است که تحقیقات بیشتری دربارة آن انجام شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


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